Epistaxis is acute haemorrhage from the nostril, nasal cavity or nasopharynx.
NOSE: 1. Trauma- Fingernail trauma, violent sneeze, hard blowing.
NASOPHARYNX: 1. Adenoiditis.
2. GENERAL CAUSES: 1. CVS- Hypertension, Mitral stenosis.
VITAL SIGNS: 1. Vomiting status. 2. Blood pressure, 3. Adequacy of airway, 4. Oral & nasal examination. [Detailed medical & treatment history is taken]
FIRST AID: Pinching the nose with thumb & index finger for 5 minutes.
Trotter’s method: Patient is made to sit, leaning a little forward over a basin to spit any blood & breath quietly from mouth.
CAUTERISATION: Anaesthetised= Bleeding point cauterized with a bead of silver nitrate or coagulated with electro cautery.
ANTERIOR NASAL PACKING: A ribbon gauge soaked with liquid paraffin inserted the floor, from floor to the roof & from before backward. Remove after 24 hr, if bleeding stopped.
POSTERIOR NASAL PACKING:
A post nasal pack is prepared by trying three silk ties to a piece of gauze rolled into the shape of cone.
A rubber catheter is passed through the nose & end is brought out from mouth.
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