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                                 The deaf child

A. PRENATAL (BEFORE BIRTH) CAUSE:

  1. Infant Factors:
  • Scheibe Dysplasia
  • Alexander dysplasia
  • Bing-Sibenmann dysplasia
  • Michel aplasia
  • Mondini dysplasia
  • Enlarged vestibular aquduct
  • Semicircular canal malformation.

   2. Maternal Factors:

  • Infection during pregnancy- Toxoplasmosis, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes Type 1 & 2, Syphilis.
  • Drugs during pregnancy- Streptomycin, Gentamicin, Tobramycin, Amikacin, Quinine or Chloroquine.
  • Radiation to mother in 1st Trimester.
  • Others- Nutritional deficiency, diabetes, toxaemia, thyroid deficiency.

  B. PERINATAL CAUSES (DURING BIRTH):

  • Anorexia.
  • Pre maturity & low birth weight [<1.5kg]
  • Birth injuries- Forcep delivery- Intracranial hemorrhage.
  • Neonatal meningitis.
  • Neonatal Jaundice.
  • Sepsis.
  • Time spent in neonatal ICU.
  • Ototoxic drug- used for neonatal meningitis or septicemia.

  C. POSTNATAL CAUSES (AFTER BIRTH):

      1. Genetic.

      2. Non-genetic-

           a. Viral infection- measles, mumps, Influenza.

           b. Secretory otitis media.

           c. Ototoxic drugs.

           d. Trauma- Fractures of temporal bone.

           e. Noise- induced deafness.

 

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