A. AGENT FACTORS: Deficiency of energy & proteins in diet. Marginal or precipitated by secondary factors- Diarrhoea, RTI, worm infestations, Malaria etc.
B. HOST FACTORS:
1. AGE: Kwarshiorkor is common in children between 1-3 years. Marasmus is common in under 5 age group.
2. SEX: Common in female child due to traditional negligence.
3. WEANING: Marasmus is common with prolonged breast feeding without introduction of weaning. Kwarshiorkor is associated with early weaning due to variety of reasons.
4. INFECTIONS: Vicious cycle of PEM & infection.
C. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS:
1. SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS: Associated with poverty. Poor people vulnerable during scarcity.
2. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS: Poor environmental sanitation, poor housing, overcrowding facilities GI & RTI infection. Precipitate PEM aggravating the marginal deficiency.
3. CUSTOMS/ HABITS: Not feeding child with colostrums. Regular administration of cathartics. Restriction of food in children during diarrhoea. Less attention to female child.
4. COOKING PRACTICES: Improper5 cooking practice lead to loss of essential nutrients.
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