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         LEVELS OF PREVENTION

        MODES OF INTERVENTION

1. Primordial Prevention

Prevent emergence of risk factors

2. Primary Prevention

a) Health promotion

b) Specific protection

3. Secondary Prevention

Early diagnosis & treatment.

4. Tertiary Prevention

a) Disability limitation

b) Rehabilitation

 

  » LEVELS OF PREVENTION IN DIABETES:

 

     LEVELS

                                      PREVENTION

1.PRIMORDIAL PREVENTION

(Population strategy, Type-2)

Prevention of the emergence of risk factors by-

a. Maintenance of normal body weight through adaptation of healthy nutritional status & physiological exercise.

b. Nutritional habits- 1. Adequate protein intake. 2. High intake of dietary fibre 3. Avoidance of sweet foods.

c. Eliminate of protein deficiency & food toxins.

2. PRIMARY PREVENTION

(High risk strategy, Type-2)

1. HEALTH PROMOTION:

a. Life style modification. b. Weight reduction (prevent obesity) c. Proper nutrition (prevent over nutrition)

2. SPECIFIC PROTECTION:

a. Alcohol restriction b. Avoid diabetogenic drug like OCP. c. Reduce factor promoting atherosclerosis- smoking, high BP, elevated cholesterol, high triglyceride level.

3. SECONDARY PREVENTION

AIM OF TREATMENT:

a.       Maintain blood glucose levels as close within normal limits.

b.       To maintain ideal body weight.

TREATMENT:

a.       Diet alone- small balanced meals more frequently.

b.       Diet & oral antidiabetic drug (metformin)

c.       Diet & insulin.

EARLY DIAGNOSIS: Routine checking of -

a.       Blood sugar

b.       Urine for proteins & ketones

c.       Blood pressure

d.       Visual acuity

e.       Weight

f.        Feet for- a. defective blood circulation, b. loss of sensation, c. health of the skin.

g.       Glycosylated haemoglobin at half yearly interval.

h.       Home blood glucose monitoring.

SELF CARE:

a.       Adherence to diet & drug regimen.

b.       Examination of urine.

c.       Blood glucose monitoring (if possible)

d.       Self administration of Insulin.

e.       Abstinence from alcohol.

f.        Maintenance of optimum weight

g.       Attending periodic check-ups.

h.       Recognition of symptoms associated with glycosuria & hypoglycaemia

 

TERTIARY PREVENTION

DISABILITY LIMITATION:

a.       Preventing complications- e.g. blindness, kidney failure, coronary thrombosis, gangrene of lower extremities.

b.       Organised specialized clinics (diabetic clinics) & units capable of providing diagnostic & management of a high order.

c.       Basic, clinical & epidemiological research.

d.       Local & national registers for diabetes should be established.

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