Questions and Best Answers

Courses


Tag

MICRONUTRIENTS:

   Micronutrients are the nutrients required by body in small quantities.

4 IMPORTANT MICRONUTRIENTS:

  1. Iron.
  2. Iodine.
  3. Fluorine.
  4. Zinc.

SPECTRUM OF IODINE DEFICIENCY DISORDERS:

      DISORDERS

      LEVELS OF SEVERITY

Goitre

Grade- 1

Grade-2

Grade-3

Multi nodular.

Hypothyroidism

Varying combinations of clinical signs (depending on age of onset, duration & severity)

Subnormal Intelligence

Delayed motor milestones

Mental deficiency

Hearing defects

Speech defects

Variable severity

Strabismus (Squint)

Nystagmus

Unilateral

Bilateral

Spasticity (Extrapyramidal)

Neuromuscular weakness

Muscle weakness in legs, arms, trunks.

Spastic diplegia.

Spastic quadriplegia.

Endemic cretinism

Hypothyroid cretinism.

Neurological cretinism.

Intra-uterine death (spontaneous abortion, Miscarriage)

 

 

NATIONAL PROGRAMMES ASSOCIATED WITH IODINE DEFICIENCY DISORDERS:

Iron deficiency disorder control programme was formerly known as National Goitre Control Programme.

OBJECTIVES & COMPONENTS:

  1. To ensure production, supply & used of iodized salt in place to common salt.
  2. Surveys to assess the magnitude of IDD.
  3. Laboratory monitoring of iodized salt & urinary iodine.
  4. Health education & publicity.

GOALS:

  1. Reduce incidence of IDD in adults to <10% by 2010.
  2. Reduce prevalence of goitre in age group of 10-14 years <5%.
  3. Reduce number of cretins born to zero by 2000.

STRATEGIES:

  1. SURVEYS TO ASSESS IODINE DEFICIENCY: Carried out in children aged 6-12 years. 20 villages/ wards or schools are selected from district by cluster sampling.
  2. USE OF IODIZED SALT: Salt are iodized with KI- called as potassium iodate (KI03). Level of iodization in salt should contain minimum 30 ppm at production level & 15 ppm at consumer level.
  3. MONITORING & SURVEILLANCE: Regular monitoring the effect of iodized salt on prevalence of IDD [IDD elimination criteria].

Proportion of enlarged thyroid (6-12 years)

<5%

Urinary iodine excretion below 100 microgram/L

<50%

Urinary iodine excretion below 50 microgram/L

<20%

Proportion of houses consuming adequately iodized salt.

<90%

    4. MAN POWER TRAINING: Efficient & trained man power are core to success of any programme. Trained at biochemistry division of National Institute of Communicable Discuss, Delhi.

    5.HEALTH EDUCATION & PUBLICITY: Regular advertisement are given in print media, TV, radio emphasizing benefits of use of iodized salt to general public in local language.

;